When I was a very young doctor I had an enormously fat patient – in those days it was rare to be so fat – who was admitted to the hospital for a long time to try to get her to lose weight more or less by starving her. I still remember her semi-liquid form flowing over the sides of the bed. I tried to be nice and understating.
“I suppose you eat for comfort,” I said to her.
“No, dear,” she replied. “I just like the taste.”
I did no know then that she was (if I may be permitted what in the circumstances is a slightly ridiculous metaphor) the canary in the mine, and that only 40 years later many human mastodons would bestride the world, at least in America and Britain.
With this epidemic has grown a new surgical speciality: bariatric surgery, that is to say surgery to correct obesity. A paper in a recent edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association reports on the results of two types of such surgery to treat obesity, gastric bypass and laparoscopic gastric band. (How long before a rock group calls itself the Laparoscopic Gastric Band?) The authors conglomerated the results from 10 hospitals so that the results should reflect average practice, not just the very best practice.
Gastric bypass proved to have better results all round than gastric banding, except that there were a small number of deaths immediately after surgery. But the results were distinctly variable even for the same procedure; for example, at three years after operation those who had had a gastric bypass varied between having lost 59.2 per cent of their baseline weight and having gained 0.9 per cent. Those who underwent the gastric banding varied between having lost 56.1 per cent of their original weight and having gained 12.6 per cent. On average, however, the two groups had lost 31.5 per cent and 15.9 per cent respectively of their original weights after their operations.
Most of the weight loss was within the first year after the procedures; one sub-group among the patients began to regain weight after six months, and all began to regain weight after two years. The weight they gained after two years, however, was slight by comparison with what they had lost.
Gross obesity is strongly associated with Type II diabetes. The operations ameliorated the diabetes of those who suffered from it in 67.5 percent of those who had at the time of gastric bypass and 28.6 percent of those who had it at the time of gastric banding. Gastric bypass also improved the lipid profile of 61.9 percent of patients with dyslipidamia and 27.1 percent of those who underwent gastric banding. The question that this study did not answer, however, was whether these improvements resulted in a reduced death rate of those who underwent surgery compared with those who did not. For it is always dangerous to suppose that the reduction in the risk factors for something (such as death from heart attacks or strokes) actually results in a reduction of that something itself. What stands to reason in medicine turns out often not to be so reasonable after all.
I happened to read this paper while I was in France. No one can possibly say that the French do not enjoy their food but it is perfectly obvious that the proportion of grossly obese people in the population of France is very much smaller than that in America or Britain. This was an aspect of the question of obesity that the paper did not mention. There is no possibility that surgery will improve the deplorable dietary choices of so many Americans and British.
Here is how a writer for The Irish Times wishes to describe the growing, now unstoppable, recognition in France, as elsewhere in Europe, that -- to quote a lapidary formula from a favorite writer -- "the large-scale presence of Muslims in the countries of Western Europe has created a situation, both for the non-Muslim indigenes and for non-Muslim immigrants, that is far more unpleasant, expensive, and physically dangerous than would be the case without that presence." Is there anyone of sense in Europe who would not turn back the clock, if he could, knowing what he knows now, so as never to have allowed that Muslim immigration in the first place?
But look how the reporter ignores that, even as he mentions examples of French -- and British -- unease. Instead, he ludicrously tells us that the French are suffering an "identity crisis." Oh no they're not.
Here's that mixture of truth and tendentious blague.
The United Nations Relief and Works Agency, whose sole task is to perpetuate the festering problem of Palestinian refugees, is mounting a traveling photo exhibit about their continuing plight. And the New York Times is only too pleased to help UNRWA peddle a grossly revisionist history of Palestinian refugees and their sad lot.
In its Nov. 29 edition, the Times devotes a four-column spread, including five heart-tugging photographs, to depict Palestinian refugees as victims of Israel’s founding. Jerusalem correspondent Isabel Kershner tells readers that “about 700,000 Arabs fled or were expelled from their homes during the Arab-Israeli war over the foundation of Israel” in 1948. And, she adds, “hundreds of thousands more were later displaced by the Arab-Israeli war of 1967.” (“Photographs Tell a History of Palestinians Unmoored – Exhibit Traces Steps of Refugees Since 1948” page A6).
Nowhere in her article does Kershner mention that there would have been no Palestinian refugee problem if the Arabs had accepted the 1947 U.N. two-state partition plan, calling for creation of an Arab state and a Jewish state. Israel accepted partition. Arabs rejected it and instead launched an all-out war against the nascent Jewish state with the avowed aim of destroying it.
Nor does Kershner mention that some 800,000 Jews who had lived for centuries in Arab lands were mercilessly persecuted by their host countries about the same time and forced to flee and become refugees as well. Jewish refugees numbered more than Palestinian refugees. But Jewish plight doesn’t grab the New York Times as much.
Neither does Kershner point out that these Jewish refugees were integrated into Israel, the United States and other countries – unlike Palestinian refugees who were – and still are – used as political pawns to undergird Arab and Palestinian calls for a “right of return” to Israel for an estimated 5 million Palestinian refugees and their descendants.
As for the impact of the 1967 Six-Day War, there is no mention that whatever happened to Palestinians, it was Egypt and Syria that precipitated the conflict, again with the avowed aim of annihilating the Jewish state.
In other words, the Palestinian refugee problem is a self-made, self-inflicted phenomenon which need never have happened.
Kershner, however, is not interested in real history. Instead, she join UNRWA in a transparentanti-Israel propaganda campaign to validate Palestinian victimhood at the expense of Israel’s basic legal and historical right to its very existence.
Thus, she highlights photos in the UNRWA exhibit of Palestinian children studying by the “dim light of gas lamps” in a camp in Gaza, rows of shacks in a “desolate refugee camp,” and a family carrying suitcases, “young son clutching a white ball,” heading east over the Allenby Bridge across the Jordan River. Kershner’s appraisal of these photos – “powerful and haunting.” But it’s all a promo for UNRWA’s exhibit, dubbed the “Long Journey,” which soon will go on a journey of its own to cities in the West Bank, Gaza, Jordan, Lebanon, Europe and North America.”
“This is an important piece of work,” Filippo Grandi, UNRWA’s commissioner-general, tells reporters at the exhibit’s opening – in Jerusalem’s Old City no less. “It is a contribution to building a national heritage for the Palestinians. “UNRWA is clearly satisfied with its propaganda project. But are there no critics? Kershner grudgingly admits that some Israelis might have a different take on the Palestinian refugee problem, but immediately dismisses any objections. Israelis, she writes, might be biased because they would “view the memorialization of the refugee experiencethrough a prism of politics and contention.”
UNRWA is OK and can be trusted, Kershner opines. But Israeli views are colored by political considerations, she cautions. Such is the anti-Israel bias of a New York Times correspondent in Jerusalem.
No one would contradict me, I suspect, if I were to assert that human beings are not always wholly consistent. Indeed, those who are much more consistent than average are apt to excite our fear or condemnation rather than our admiration. To be faithful to a bad principle is worse than having no principle at all. And, as Emerson said, consistency is the hobgoblin of little minds.
Yet by what other law than that of non-contradiction are we supposed to argue? Argumentation cannot just be a cacophony of incommensurable assertion, with the one who shouts loudest, speaks longest or employs the best phrases, taking the honors. And this is so even if Gödel was correct, and there is no entirely consistent system of logic without necessity to assume, without proof, the truth of some of its suppositions.
Yet there are contradictions and contradictions. I mention this because I am going to write about the death penalty, a subject about which almost everyone is contradictory, including me. I am against it though I am not a complete pacifist and do not believe that it is always wrong to kill, and though I happen also to believe that it, the death penalty, works – as a deterrent. I found unexpected evidence of this in the British historical experience, which I cannot here divulge because I confided it to a colleague who wants to use it in a book he is writing. To reveal it now would be to spoil its effect in his book.
My main objection to the death penalty is that, even in the most scrupulous of jurisdictions, mistakes are sometimes made, and for the law to put someone to death wrongly is an injustice so monstrous as to undermine trust in law itself. I once used this argument in company in which someone claimed to be able to refute me easily; for it was a fact, he said, that more people had been murdered by murderers who had not been executed than who had been wrongfully executed.
Granting for a moment his empirical premise, though I was not absolutely sure that it was factually correct, I replied that his argument was valid only if one accepted a very narrow interpretation of utilitarianism: and since I knew him to be not that kind of utilitarian, he was guilty of self-contradiction. My problem was that, on occasion and if need be, I resort to precisely the same kind of utilitarian argument myself; and therefore I was guilty myself of the very philosophical inconsistency of which I accused him. My interlocutor had the grace not to mention it.
I would not myself be prepared to participate in an execution, but I am not sure of the moral relevance of such an argument. I think that what is true of me is probably true even of most supporters of the death penalty: and have they the right to demand that others do what they themselves would not be prepared to do? Possibly, for there are many things that I would not do myself that I am nevertheless glad are done (though mostly my objections to doing them are aesthetic or psychological rather than moral). Still, there are many things that for moral reasons I would not do that I would not prohibit. But not to wish to prohibit something is not the same as to think it should be done.
At any rate, I am glad that the death penalty had been abolished long before I became a prison doctor: I would not have relished the task of certifying the fitness of someone to be executed. The criteria of fitness for execution is not one of the things taught at medical school; under common law, a person executed must be at least compos mentis, though it is not easy to see why, since execution can hardly be carried out to teach him a lesson. I would have been tempted to excuse everyone his execution on medical grounds.
The motives of abolitionists are, like those of other men, sometimes strangely mixed. I realized this when reading an article in the French Sunday newspaper, the Journal du dimanche about the forthcoming execution by lethal injection of Joseph Paul Franklin, the white supremacist guilty of several murders and of shooting and paralyzing Larry Flint, whom the newspaper called the Porn King. According to the article, Mr Flint is pleading that the man who rendered him paraplegic should not be executed.
The French, at least of the intellectual and writing class, are now outraged by the death penalty in itself and treat it as if it were a manifestation of mediaeval barbarism, though in fact it was abolished in their own country as late as 1981 (that is, a year after Franklin killed). The curious thing is that it is only executions in the United States that outrage them, not those that are carried out in, say, India. Various interpretations of this strangely narrow focus of moral outrage are possible, not many of them creditable.
However it does seem to me that to execute someone more than thirty years after he has committed his crimes, not because he has in the meantime evaded justice but because it takes thirty years to exhaust all legal expedients, bespeaks a judicial system that is not scrupulous, but grossly cruel and incompetent, to put it mildly. If there are enough grounds for postponing an execution for thirty years, there are either enough grounds for postponing it for ever or the whole system ought to be overhauled. Justice should be swift without being summary; a case such as this make it seem slow without being sure.
Mr Flint was reported as having said that he was against the execution of Franklin because ‘The death penalty has no deterrent effect.’ He added that if the death penalty were proved to exert such a deterrent, he would approve of it. But this is to render justice completely subservient to utility, which it cannot be and still remain justice.
There remains the humanitarian argument, but Mr Flint is not a convinced humanitarian, far from it, at least if the newspaper report is to be believed. For he said that ‘as for life imprisonment, to be condemned to a cell one yard by two [his own wheelchair] for more than thirty years is a punishment far worse than death by syringe.’ By implication, therefore, execution by lethal injection is not to be reprehended because it is too severe a punishment but because it is too lenient. He wants the suffering of his attacker to linger indefinitely, not to have a term. I am reminded of the famous, or infamous, eighteenth century pamphlet, Hanging Not Punishment Enough.
Yet I think it likely that Mr Flint is not, in fact, motivated principally by cruelty. He is merely, like me, like all of us, inconsistent.
One last point. The German company that makes propofol, the drug used in Missouri for execution by injection, has threatened not to allow it to be exported to the United States where, apparently, no one makes it. Germany, of course, has an unfortunate past where execution by chemical is concerned. But there is the slight difference of due process, due process that took thirty years to exhaust! What hay Dickens would have made of it!
A British man who was killed fighting alongside Al Qaeda-linked extremists in Syria funded his trip by mugging people in an affluent area of London, The Mail on Sunday has learned. Choukri Ellekhlifi, 22, threatened victims with a Taser-style high-voltage stun gun and forced them to hand over valuables including designer watches and mobile phones.
He lived in London until a year ago when he skipped bail and travelled to Syria to join a group of Islamic extremists waging war on President Assad’s regime. Now it has been revealed that he was one of three British men killed as their group attacked pro-government forces near the city of Aleppo on August 11.
Ellekhlifi had joined the rebels under a pseudonym but his true identity became clear after police compared mugshots taken after his arrest for the street robberies with a photo of British fighters in Syria that emerged last week.
Another man pictured with him, Mohammed el-Araj, 23, from Ladbroke Grove, West London, was killed two weeks later during a firefight.
Months before his death, Ellekhlifi targeted wealthy individuals in Belgravia, Central London to raise funds for his journey to the Middle East, according to security sources. Alongside two accomplices – Mohamed Elyasse Taleouine, 21, and Mohammed Ibrahim, 23, both from West London – Ellekhlifi committed eight robberies during a four-day crime spree last year.
‘Wearing masks, they would approach their victims on bicycles, threaten them with a stun gun and demand they hand over their possessions,’ a security source said . . . Two of the gang’s victims needed hospital treatment after the gun was fired at them.
The three men were arrested and released on bail and it is thought that Ellekhlifi then fled Britain to join the Syrian rebels.
A fighter using the name ‘Abu Hujama al-Britani’ was recently pictured in Syria, clutching an AK-47 rifle. Now ‘Hujama’ has been identified as Ellekhlifi, who was of Moroccan origin and lived in Paddington.
He evaded a prison sentence for death. What goes around comes around.
Dr. Caroline Bassoon Saltzman, Iraqi Jewish Refugee and Canadian Citizen
Source: National Post
It is auspicious and coincidental that we published today a New English Review interview with former Pentagon aide, Dr. Harold Rhode, entitled, “The Savior of the Iraqi Jewish Archives”. The National Post in Toronto published the story of an Iraqi Jewish refugee and Canadian citizen, Dr. Caroline Bassoon-Zaltzman, “Iraqi Jews Who Fled Persecution fight to stop US from Returning Stolen Artifacts to Baghdad”. Dr. Bassoon-Zaltzman as a 14 year old fled Iraq with her family in 1971 under the reign of the late Ba’athist dictator Saddam Hussein. Hussein had ordered his Mukhabarat (Intelligence service) to raid the synagogues, community centers and homes of Baghdadi Jews to build files for a so-called Israel and Jewish Section. Dr. Rhode, a civilian advisor to the Coalition Provisional Authority, and colleagues found a vast trove of sodden documents under water in the basement of the Iraqi Mukhabarat building in Baghdad in May 2003. Our interview with Dr. Rhode tells the story of the discovery and the generous efforts of the Bush government in facilitating the recovery and restoration of the Iraqi Jewish Archives by the National Archives and Records Agency (NARA). NARA has mounted an exhibit of selected items from the Iraqi Jewish Archives currently on display at the Lawrence F. O’Brien Gallery in Washington, DC. One of those items in the NARA exhibit is a report card of Dr. Basoon-Zaltzman that she will view when she visits Washington, next week. Perthaps she may even meet with Dr. Rhode who acts as a docent leading groups through the exihibit.
Both Drs. Rhode and Bassoon-Zaltzman are protesting the return of the Iraqi Jewish Archives to Baghdad under the terms of an agreement between the CPA of the US Government and the interim Iraqi government in July 2003. Rightfully, the Iraqi Jewish Archives should be returned to the Baghdadi Jewish Community, 85% of whom settled in Israel. Perhaps the archives be placed on permanent exhibit at the Babylonian Jewish Heritage Center. After all, the archives were stolen from the ancient Jewish community that numbered more than 130,000 in Baghdad at the time of their expulsion and expropriation of property and rescued in the wake of the Israeli War of Independence in 1950-51. There are perhaps a handful of elderly Jews left in Baghdad.
The National Post article quoted Dr. Rhode saying, “Like sending back art that Nazis looted”.
Canada’s Foreign Minister John Baird wrote the following to the National Post:
“It is unfortunate that Iraq is simply not prepared to openly chronicle this tragic history as a monument for the people of Iraq, towards a meaningful reconciliation, or towards the historical preservation of archives and other itmes that document the ancient heritage of Iraqi Jewry.
“There also ought to be justice for those who were forced to leave with nothing and have an opportunity to reclaim not only their irreplaceable personal property, but crucial pieces of a past that is so vulnerable to being forever lost.
“For the last Jews in Baghdad and their descendants in Canada and beyond, Iraqi Judaica is ultimately their history to preserve and cherish.”
47 members of the US Congress on November 13, 2013 delivered a letter to US Secretary of State John Kerry stating, “Government of Iraq has no legitimate claim to these artifacts”.
Dr. Rhode here in the US, and hundreds of thousands of Iraqi Jewish refugees like Dr. Bassoon-Zaltzman in Canada, Israel and elsewhere in the West are waiting for an answer from Secretary Kerry.
As Jews around the world observe this Fourth night of Hanukkah, they light candles in commemoration of the revolt by the ancient Israelites, led by the Maccabees, who wrested their country from Syrian Greek tyranny denying religious freedom. The Fourth light is the light of Mercy. “Do Justice and love Mercy” was the teaching of Micah, the prophet. We hope that Secretary Kerry notes that message when discussing return of these precious Iraqi Jewish Archives stolen from this vibrant and resourceful community safeguarded and repatriated to the Land of Israel.
Sitting at the check-out counter, Doreen saw him the moment he walked into the pharmacy. She watched him hand in his prescription, his ponytail dangling, the tight fit of his jeans and wondered if he was gay, or had a girlfriend, or too many of them. more>>>
Former President Sam W. Marsh looks back on the events of "The Crisis," which began with the hijacking of
a Russian nuclear bomber. The president’s commentary has been excerpted from an interview he gave with Paul C. Rubin on the nearly eighth anniversary of those events. Sometimes the president’s unusual pronunciation of certain words has been retained in spelling to heighten his folksiness. The abbreviation PSFTRP signals those moments in which the president Paused and Searched For The Right Phrase.
“If anyone ever has any information about a possible attack on America, I want them to call the homeland.” - Sam W. Marsh more>>>
Although the creation of a single work of art may be an individual effort, artists have often clustered together to share ideas, offer mutual support, and provide a sympathetic audience for one another. The dynamics of rapid change in artistic styles over the past forty years have required that artists who want to remain current with the latest developments in art be close to the important galleries as well as accessible to others working in their particular field.
—James R. Hudson, The Unanticipated City (1987)
What I experienced in Artists’ SoHo was a cultural hothouse unlike anything anywhere else or any community before in American life. I’d already known about “artist colonies,” to be sure, but this was an urban oasis created by hundreds of artists, if not more, acting independently. more>>>
Jewish sages honored the memory of the august philosopher “Maimonides,” also known as Moshe ben Maimon, 1134-1205, proclaiming that from the time of “Moshe” (the first Moses, flourished ca. 1450 B.C) there had been no other like him, thereby expressing their admiration in the highest form of an accolade extending across 2,500 years. The same, to a somewhat lesser degree, might well be said of the late Israeli singer Arik Einstein. ”That from the time of the first Einstein (Albert), there had been no other figure so revered as the current Einstein (Arik)” – at least by the Israeli public. more>>>
Forgive me for being somewhat confused. It turns out that Muhammad was a man of peace, love and understanding. I had formed the impression that he was a ruthless warrior who advocated terror, subterfuge and slaughter of the defeated. But here is one account typical of the numerous accounts given on various websites run by Muslim organizations:
I have been inspired to write this essay due to a statement from Hizb-ut-Tahrir that was brought to my attention recently. The statement was written in September 2013, before the Australian election, and although there has now been a change of government in Australia and there have been promises of a crackdown on illegal immigration, especially in regards to the so-called “boat people” arriving from Indonesia and beyond, I feel that many issues that Hizb-ut-Tahrir have touched upon in this statement are likely to remain unaddressed. They should indeed be addressed, but perhaps not in the way that Hizb-ut-Tahrir intended. more>>>
I feel that we in the West could be helped to rediscover those roots of our own understanding by an appreciation of the Islamic tradition's deep respect for the timeless traditions of the natural order." – Prince Charles
"Where else can you sit down in a single evening and listen to senior people from Hamas, Hezbollah, the Muslim Brotherhood…?" – John Rees (ex-SWP, now Counterfire/ Stop the War Coalition (StWC), and a regular contributor to Iran's Press TV and the Islam Channel)
Leftist Posh Boys and the Brown Exotic
There is a long tradition of posh Trotskyists/progressives condescending what they take to be the brown exotic. (Prince Charles, who's not a Trot, also indulges in this pastime with all things Islamic and Arabic; just as Sir Richard Francis Burton, another upper-class gentleman, did in the 19th century.) more>>>
The main reason for the constant drift of Israeli public opinion towards a two state solution to the conflict with the Palestinians is the failure of those in the Israeli national camp to articulate a viable alternative. Attempting to perpetuate the status quo indefinitely is no longer an effective strategy in the face of the growing pressure from the United States as well as the EU and the UN to accept a Palestinian state. more>>>
The topsy turvey developments in the Middle East made for high drama on the international and regional stage in the waning months of 2013.
Desperate to stave off swooning domestic poll approval ratings caused by the unraveling the Affordable Care Act, the Obama Administration was hopeful that an Interim agreement via the P5+1 in Geneva might bolster public opinion of its conduct of foreign affairs. On November 10, 2013, French Foreign Minister Laurent Fabius upended discussions in Geneva calling the interim deal by the P5+1 with a Iranian delegation a “fool’s game.” more>>>
1. (Non-Christian Religions / Hinduism) HinduismBuddhism the principle of retributive justice determining a person's state of life and the state of his reincarnations as the effect of his past deeds
2. (Christian Religious Writings / Theology) Theosophy the doctrine of inevitable consequence
3. destiny or fate
They say that Karma is your fate and that regardless of what you want, you will eventually fulfill your karma. But it may not be that simple. The concept of Karma is a complex piece of Hindu philosophy, which I have never claimed to fully understand, but when invited to work in Nepal for four months at the age of 59, I think my Karma took me by surprise. more>>>
Let us tenderly and kindly cherish therefore, the means of knowledge. Let us dare to read, think, speak, and write.”
- John Adams
Our niece is about to finish high school. Geography is a major concern as she considers a university. She wants to be as far from home as possible, but close enough to some big city. Like many an American teen, she can’t see herself too far from the fashionistas. more>>>
If the 12th and 13th centuries are now seen as the pinnacle of an age of faith, and the 18th, an age of reason, the consensus (at this time) appears to be that the 20th Century was a secular age. As for the 19th Century—that transitional age of relative peace—its world did not end in 1900, but in 1914, with the outbreak of the First World War; a war in which a generation of young men died, and those who survived were physically and emotionally scarred forever. That is now a largely accepted consensus. But if Jake Barnes was a member of that ("lost") generation, given the nature of his wound (chronic impotence), his is the most traumatized of his circle of spiritually empty friends—Mike Campbell, Brett Ashley, Robert Cohn. A discussion of Barnes as a secular father-confessor in a secular age must take those particulars into account. more>>>
The seventh novel of the third decade of "Cinthio's" (Giovanbattista Giraldi's) Hecatommithi (1565), is The Moor of Venice. This is the tale adapted by Shakespeare for his The Tragedy ofOthello,circa 1604. (Bate, 2474) In Cinthio, the bad guy is nameless. He appears simply as "the Ensign." Unlike his disposition in Shakespeare's version, Cinthio's Ensign is in love with the Moor's young bride, called "Disdemona." The figure later known as "Cassio" in Othello is referred to with equal abstraction, as "the Captain." As Shakespeare reworked the plot he perforce refashioned its characters. It stands to reason, then, that if we would understand and appreciate Shakespeare's dramatis personae in Othello, we should ascertain the key changes he introduced in the figures bequeathed him by his Italian predecessor. more>>>
In May 2003, Ahmed Chalabi, prominent secular exile Shiite leader and the head of the opposition Iraqi National Congress(INC) received a visitor, the former Head of the Israel and Jewish Section of Saddam Hussein’s Mukhabarat, Intelligence Service. The visitor was seeking a safe passage document from the Coalition Provisional Authority in exchange for disclosing that there was a vast trove of ancient Jewish artifacts in what was the water-logged basement of former Intelligence headquarters in Baghdad. The Mukhabarat building had been severely damaged by a massive unexploded bomb that had pierced the water lines placing the basement under four feet of water. more>>>
In 1940, U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt was still keeping his countrymen in the dark about his political intentions, and there was teeming curiosity about whether he would break a tradition as old as the Republic and seek a third term. As the Soviet Union occupied Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia, bringing to 14 the number of countries that had been occupied, starting with Ethiopia, Roosevelt staged another of his political masterstrokes, by firing his isolationist war secretary, Harry Woodring, and bringing into his administration preparedness advocate and former Republican secretary of war and state Colonel Henry Stimson and, as navy secretary, the previous Republican candidate for vice president and comrade in arms of Theodore Roosevelt, Colonel Frank Knox. more>>>