Thursday, 17 January 2008
No mystery as to why Christian missionaries might be having their greatest success in the Kabyle. In Algeria, that remains the Berber heartland. It is where the Berbers, that is those who were not forcibly transformed, during the centuries of Arab rule (interrupted by 132 years of French rule) into "Arabs" (how many of those "Arabs" who now persecute the Berbers realize that they themselves are a generation, or two, or five removed from their clearly Berber origins?)
The cause of the Berbers is hardly known in this country. The writer Kateb Yacine, a Berber who refused to write in Arabic, but chose French, is celebrated in France, especially among Berbers -- but unknown in this country, and his anti-Arab rage is not likely to cause his books to be included in the syllabuses of courses on "Francophone" literature given that so many such courses are now taught by French-speaking Arabs.
What is that cause? In the first place, it is linguistic and cultural. In Algeria, where the French rightly saw the Berbers as superior to the Arabs -- one French general wrote a book about the "Europeanness" of the Berbers -- the Berbers were not discriminated against, but as soon as the French left, the forced arabisation of the Berbers started up at once, as if the French interregnum, with the wider possibilities that French education made possible to both Berbers and Arabs, had never existed. Older people in Algeria speak and use French; the younger ones are forgetting. And meanwhile, the Berbers were forbidden to use their own language, the Berber language, Tamazight, in their schools, in their institutions, and even, at times, they could be punished for using it among themselves, on the street. Berber culture was officially ignored.
About twenty years ago, news of agitation began to reach the outside world. There were riots in Tizi-Ouzou. Reported in France, but hardly anywhere else in the Western world. In America, of course, we had all been sufficiently subject to ARAMCO propaganda (performed as a "public service" by the big oil companies, as part of their propaganda payoff to the Saudis for allowing them to find, produce, and then pay exorbitantly for the oil that happens to lie under the malevolent sands of "Saudi" Arabia), to believe that there is something called "the Arab world" and in this "Arab world" there are no Copts, no Armenians, no Assyrians, no Chaldeans, no Turkmen, no Mandeans, no Maronites, and of course no Berbers, no Jews (no, there never were any Jews in North Africa or the Middle East -- they all came to Israel, you see, from Europe), for everyone in the Arab world was an "Arab."
The discovery or re-discovery of a Berber identity (and how many of those North African "Arabs" should begin to realize that they are Berbers? There is, by the way, a genetic marker that, in studies by French geneticists in Tunisia, shows that Berbers and Arabs can be easily distinguished) is or could be an important weapon in unsettling the world of Islam, and perhaps causing the Maghreb to see itself, as it should not as "Arab" but as the victim of Arab imperialism.
For what is Islam if not a vehicle of Arab imperialism, and what are the Berbers, if not the victims of that Arab imperialism, an imperialism far more potent and long-lasting than the European kind, for it attempts to efface the historic identity of whole peoples?
And it makes perfect sense that Berbers in the Kabyle would, having felt along their pulses the Arab imperialism of which Islam is the vehicle, would be more open to the efforts of Christian missionaries, or more likely, are not so much responding to missionary activity, but to their own observations as to what Christianity is like, and what Islam has brought them.
In this respect, one should not underestimate the fact that Berbers now live in France, that they make up most of the membership of such groups as the "maghrebins laiques," and that they, not the Arabs whose ethnic identity is so found up with Islam, are capable, in some cases, not of identifying with the Arabs, but more closely with the French. And those Berbers communicate with Berbers at home, or through the Internet. And sometimes they return, to Algeria and Morocco, to see their families, and bring with them their own observations on the relative merits of the Islamic world, a world suffused with Islam, and the non-Islamic world, the one they have experienced in France.
The more the non-Arab Muslims of the world, and 80% of the world's Muslims are not Arab, come to realize -- and it would not be hard to help them to realize, for they will not be able to deny the facts, having experienced so much of it themselves -- that Islam is a vehicle for that Arab supremacism, the more likely it is that at least some of them will fall away. And others, who may stick with a kind of "non-Arab" Islam (as if such were possible) will, in so doing, at least help to divide, and therefore to weaken, the Camp of Islam.
Ideally, one would wish this Total System, that has held so many hundreds of millions in thrall, and thwarted over so many centuries so much human potential (think of the art, think of the science, that might have resulted in the absence of the dead hand of Islam on so many people, prevented from so many forms of artistic expression, so many avenues for free and skeptical inquiry that are necessary for the enterprise of science, so much dull fanaticism, so much boredom, so much violence, in posse and in esse) will be seen, by Berbers, by Kurds, by people in the subcontinent (why should Muslims in
Meanwhile, start reading those Berber sites. And hope that the French state, instead of Sarkozy's folly of "integrating" its Muslims by government-supported mosques, will try to work on the Berbers, work to make them see the light, work to help them to achieve their own destiny, one different from, and superior to, that of the Arabs whose method of domination comes from, is supplied by, Islam, Islam, Islam.
Posted on 01/17/2008 8:48 AM by Hugh Fitzgerald
17 Jan 2008
Or: Crossing & Topping One's Palms With Silver & Slavs
From The Europeans by John Geipel:
page 50- "Among these were the Moors, an aggregation of Semitic and Hamitic speaking peoples, more Berber than Arab in origin, who crossed into Spain and Portugal...."
page 138- "Thus, Mourant and Watkin suggest, on the basis of similar blood group frequencies, the possibility of a very ancient genetic connection between the Keltic-speaking peoples of Scotland, Ireland and Wales and the Hamitic-speaking Berbers of North Africa, thus reviving the old speculation that the Keltic languages may still preserve elements of an originally non-Indo-European speech introduced from North Africa to Europe in Neolithic times."
page 75- "The Gothones [led by Alaric] were very soon absorbed into the local, numerically superior population. The fair hair and light eyes, still encountered in parts of Spain and Portugal, must be regarded as ancient local traits, which, incidentally, seem also to be endemic among the North African Berbers, rather than as a genetic legacy of the Vandals, Visigoths and other Gothonic invaders...The Moors overran both Spain and Portugal, the Berber rank and file settling in the mountainous central parts that most resembled their homeland, whilst the Arab leaders [the swank and file], many of them Syrians, favoured the city centres...."
The Gothones, it would seem were absorbed, if not gone with the Wends*.
page 44- "...whilst the Arab geographer, Ibn Fadlan, who encountered Slavs on his visit to the Volga Bulgars in A.D. 921, says 'I saw none of better physique than them (the Slavs); they were tall as palms, red-cheeked and handsome.' Although their own collective name for themselves seems always to have been 'Slavjane', ('those who speak', as opposed to the Njemtsi, the Germans or 'Dumb ones'), the physical appearance of their western representatives, at any rate, was evidently striking enough to earn them the name of 'Wends' (Old Norse: Vindr; Old English: Winedas; Latin: Venedae, etc.), from a Keltic root meaning 'fair' or 'white' (cf. Welsh: Gwyn; Irish: Finn)."
Of course, others of Ibn Fadlan's ilk raided the badlandish steppes for Slavs, a.k.a. "slaves."