Sunday, 20 January 2013
'Dies Gloriae'* IV: From Saint Euthymius The Great To The Blessed Michaël Kozal

Those of you who are regular readers at NER - and you number well into the millions, and thank-you for that support - will, by now, be aware that in this series of posts1 I am desirous of demonstrating three things, viz. that many Christians throughout the ages have always resisted the temptations of the pagan, the uncivilised and the devil-worshippers (particularly the Mohammedans), further, that in the main we have also resisted political absolutists of any hue and, lastly, that we can draw inspiration from the examples of the steadfastness of our precursors.

I am also seeking to show to those of you with no, or a limited, knowledge of Christianity just how one aspect of the Christian year works: that facet being the days of glory* (each and every day of the year is a day of glory for all Christians and all days have been so since God began this creation billions of years ago and this was reinforced, given new meaning and made splendid by Christ's incarnation and sacrifice) and how we use each and every glorious day with, in this case, particular reference to the saints who have preceded us rather than any other of the many Christian features and practices of each lustrous day. Naturally, we use the splendour of the days in other ways as well2, but in this particular series I am concentrating on those whose lives can inspire and console us, the toilers and readers at NER, as we battle the forces of evil and defend our ways of life and living - our cultures.

Concentration on just the few lives that I think can move us, and occasionally excite us to emulation, means that by selecting just one saint then I am ignoring the many other saints that we commemorate each and every bright day of the year. Those saints that I have chosen to ignore will have been equally as exceptional as people as those whom I have chosen to include. So, you may ask, what are my criteria for inclusion? Simply put, I have chosen my 'saint for the day', so to speak, by judging his direct, and I stress the word 'direct', relevance, in my sole opinion, to what we seek to do at this site, which is to defend our free, enlightened and democratic societies from the Mohammedan jihad, the oikophobes3 in our own societies and the extremists, mainly on the political left but some on the right too, who would, by their actions (inadvertent or deliberate) remove the rights of the ordinary citizen and drag our societies towards oligarchy, dictatorship or vile Mohammedan theocracy.

Despite being a Christian and extolling the virtues of our Judeo-Christian inheritance I would also strongly resist the imposition of a Christian theocracy, or, indeed, any theocracy of any religious colour whatsoever. I firmly believe in the separation of church and state and I am not, by writing this series of posts at NER, in any way attempting to subvert that idea - my intention is to remind us all of our inheritance and to inspire and comfort all of us by remembering those who have gone before us who, in some way, fought the same fight that we are fighting.

I am doing this from my Christian perspective because that is what I know and I want to share it with all of you, and also because Christianity, and your inheritance of enlightenment Judeo-Christian values and ideas, is under attack as never before. One of the most interesting pieces of knowledge that one can deduce from the bare facts in the recent Pew Research Center's reports is that Christians, who make up a third of the world's population, are also the most persecuted group of people on Earth and that Mohammedans are the people usually doing the persecuting (not just of Christians, but also of all other religions, and that, obviously, gives the lie to the perpetual Mohammedan claims about worldwide so-called 'Islamophobia'). You can find the three full reports here at the Pew Center's site , from where each report can be read and downloaded so that you, the readers, can judge for yourselves.

So, my first saint for this week is, naturally, one who is memorialised on the twentieth of January. He is known as Saint Euthymius the Great. He was born in AD377 and, after a unexceptional Christian upbringing, he became a monk circa 396. Round about 406 he became a hermit close to the monastery of Pharan just outside Jerusalem with another hermit called Theoctistus. After about five years so many people had gathered around the holy pair that they built a monastery; Theoctistus became abbot, and Euthymius retreated to a cell near the Dead Sea. It was there that he cured a boy called Terebon, the son of an Arab chief called Aspebetus, of a mystery illness, which spread Euthymius' fame far beyond the confines of Palestine. Many, many Arabs were converted to Christianity because of this and looked to Euthymius as the prime cause of their coming to Christ. (The Arab chief Aspebetus, the boy's father, was later ordained as a priest and became Bishop of his people, in which capacity we know that he attended the Council of Ephesus in 431.)

The report of this miracle made the name of Euthymius famous throughout Palestine, and beyond, and large crowds came to visit him in his solitude so he retreated, with his disciple Domitian, to the wilderness of Ruba, near the Dead Sea. Here he lived for some time on a remote mountain called Marda but later he withdrew to the desert of Zipho (the ancient Engaddi). When large crowds followed him to this place also, he returned to the neighbourhood of the monastery of Theoctistus near Jerusalem, where he took up his abode in a cave. Every Sunday he went to the monastery to take part in the Divine services. Eventually, because numerous disciples wanted him as their spiritual guide, he founded, in AD420, on the road from Jerusalem to Jericho, a laura4 similar to that at Pharan where he had first retreated. The church connected with this laura was dedicated in AD428 by Juvenal, the first Patriarch of Jerusalem. When the Council of Chalcedon met in AD451 and condemned the Monophysite errors5, it was greatly due to the authority of Euthymius that most of the Eastern recluses and hermits accepted its decrees.

Euthymius was called home to G-d on this day in AD473 and there are two reasons why we should remember him. First, he sought solitude in order to commune with G-d but he also recognised the needs of others and often gave up his own wants and needs in order to serve the multitude that had need of his counsel - pray that we can be as wise and as selfless when we are needed by others. Second, by his example and his help for the youngster Terebon, and by his life, he converted many Arabs, thus reinforcing Christianity on the Arabian Peninsula. We are used to thinking of Arabs as devil-worshipping Mohammedans, which they are today, but we must remember that that wasn't always the case6 and that the Arabs are as much victims of that feculent prophet of the devil called Mohammed as are any of those who have ever been persecuted by the believers in his sleazy, hellish cult.

Euthymius should remind us all on this day that we must abhor the accursed, murderous cult of Mohammedanism, often called Islam today, but we must never, never fall into the trap of hating the believers in that infernal system on the basis of race, nor should we hate them as people. We must learn to revile and avoid their satanic ways and beliefs without actually hating the people themselves. Euthymius, and many others, proved that even the Arabs are capable of coming to G-d. We must take that knowledge and extend it to cover all the peoples trapped inside the upside-down world wherein good is bad and bad is good that has been inflicted on humanity by that fiend from hell in human guise called Mohammed. The example of Euthymius should help us to do so.

The twenty-first brings me to Saint Vimin of Holywood. I like to memorialise this sixth century Scottish saint because he was a very humble man who tried very hard not to let his fame turn his head - even his foundation of the monastery of Holywood (Dercongal) in Dumfries-shire was an attempt to efface himself by retreating to the wild oak wood of Nithsdale. His attempts at self-effacement were so successful that we don't really know when he was born and we are guessing at the year of his death when we say it was AD615. We memorialise him on this day because he has traditionally been so remembered in Scotland and we know from an ancient prayer in the Aberdeen Breviary about this feast day and about other monuments that bear evidence to the great devotion of the ancient Scottish church to his memory. (See the Breviarium Aberdonense et Chronicon Skonense7.)

He was an Abbot and a Bishop in the Kingdom of Fife (Fife is correctly known as, and is always called, 'The Kingdom of Fife' and usually referred to as just 'The Kingdom' when the context makes it plain which part of Scotland is being referred to) which was not an unusual combination in that day and age (see The Venerable Bede, Historia ecclesiastica gentis Anglorum -- 'The Ecclesiastical History of the English People' -- l. 4. c. 17, etc., on St. Aidan).

The other name for St. Vimin's abbey in the wild wood is 'Dercongal', which probably comes from Doire Congaill, the Gaelic for 'Congall's oak-copse', Congall (in Welsh., the name 'Cinvall') being a saint venerated by the west coast Gaelic speaking natives of the area. For this reason the abbot of Dercongal also became known as the abbot "de Sacro Nemore", abbot 'of the Sacred Grove', which became 'Holywood' in English.

Apart from the deep humility of Saint Vimin that prompted his foundation of the abbey - a humility that is completely lacking in Mohammedanism but that Christians, and many others in the civilised world, routinely strive to emulate - there is another reason for remembering St. Vimin and his remote foundation and that is that it rapidly became a centre of erudition and learning. It produced many scholars, but perhaps the most well-known of them was the famous mathematician Johannes de Sacrobosco.

John of Holywood (circa AD1195 to circa 1256), also known as Johannes de Sacrobosco, or Sacro Bosco, was a monk of Dercongal Abbey, scholar and astronomer who taught at the University of Paris and wrote the authoritative mediaeval astronomy text Tractatus de Sphaera (Treatise on [the nature of] the Sphere [of the world]) about 1230. In this book, Sacrobosco gave an account of the Ptolemaic universe as he perceived it. It was required reading by students in all Western European universities for the next four centuries. Though primarily about the astronomy of the heavens it contains a clear description of the Earth as a sphere and that description clearly demonstrates that medieval scholars were well aware that the Earth was round and not flat and that the idea that they didn't know that fact is really a much later erroneous reading of history.

John of Holywood also wrote another vitally important work known as Algorismus, more correctly De Arte Numerandi (thought to have been his first work in about 1490), in which he advanced the use of the Hindu numerals that we use today and also supported the use of the Hindu methods of numerical calculation, both of which the Arabs transmitted to the West after their bloody conquests of the much more advanced civilisations of the East. What John of Holywood is probably more famous for, however, is his criticism of the Julian calendar. In his book on computus8, called De Anni Ratione (1235), he pointed out that the Julian calendar was ten days out of true with the seasons and the stars and that some correction was needed. He didn't specify any particular correction but with astounding precision he advocated leaving one day out of the calendar every 288 years in order to keep any calendar true to nature. However, it was in this book that he perpetuated, and probably originated, the myth that Caesar Augustus took a day from February to give to August, which is just a nice fairy tale to account for the small number of days in February9.

So, without St. Vimin's humility that caused him to found his monastery in Nithsdale we wouldn't have had that most important monk and scholar John of Holywood and it would probably have taken several more centuries than it actually did for us to reach the advanced scientific society that we enjoy today. St. Vimin couldn't have known that John would one day study in his monastery, and he would probably have run a mile from any fame that that fact might bring, but, in a sense, St. Vimin is responsible for our technical prowess today. Now there's a thought!

Most people who read at this site, and many others elsewhere, are fully aware of the Mohammedan approach to children and women - they are both just possessions of some male or other and he can do to them as he wants safe in the knowledge that his appalling, so-called religion says that he can - indeed, their demon, Mohammed, whom they call, laughably, a prophet, liked to have sex with pre-pubescent girls. When Mohammedans settle in civilised countries they often follow this example but rather than molesting and abusing their own children (although they probably do that also but just don't get caught as often) they force their attentions on the children of the native populations10, and often, even more disgustingly, on the vulnerable ones at that.

It's because of the stomach-churning behaviour of Mohammedans towards children that I have picked St. Vincent Pallotti as my saint for the twenty-second of January. Vincent was born at Rome in AD1785 and died in 1850. He was buried in the church of San Salvatore in Onda11. He was descended from the noble families of the Pallotti of Norcia and the De Rossi of Rome. His early studies were made at the Pious Schools of San Pantaleone, and from there he passed to the Roman College. At the age of sixteen, he resolved to become a priest, and was ordained on May 16, 1820.

It's not because he was a sterling priest, however, that has prompted me to want him for this burnished day. He was, indeed, a great priest and an example to others in that calling, but he was also deeply concerned all his life about young people. He worked tirelessly and selflessly to rescue them from sometimes the most awful of conditions. He made time for daily visits to the Rome city hospitals and to the jails and prisons where his smile and compassion brought a ray of sunshine to those incarcerated there. He badgered the prison officials incessantly until he had obtained the separation of the youthful offenders from the adults in prison. "If you want to rehabilitate youth and keep them out of jail in the future, then give them the chance to do without a thorough training in criminality they are sure to receive from their elders here!" he is reported to have said, and he was listened to with respect by the prison authorities, and with thankfulness from those who would gain a new chance in life. He also worked with the young in some of the roughest areas of Rome and had considerable success in keeping many of them out of trouble and setting them on new paths to better lives.

Unlike the filthy and loathsome Mohammedans who prey on vulnerable children and use them in disgusting ways in order to gratify their basest desires, St Vincent helped and encouraged the young and paid special attention to the needy amongst them in order to help them live fulfilling and normal lives, as all Christians should. He is still a shining example of exactly what the Christian derived western values concerning the young are and those values point up the vast superiority of Judeo-Christian societies over the Mohammedan societies that derive their ways of doing things from satan through the nauseating words of the demon Mohammed.

St. Vincent was canonised by Pope John XXIII in 1963 and the order that he founded in 1835 - The Society of the Catholic Apostolate (Societas Apostolatus Catholici, abbreviated S.A.C.), better known as the Pallottines - perpetuates his great works and continues to remind us all of the correct way to treat other human beings regardless of their age or gender.

For the twenty-third of January I want to commemorate a very personal saint because I happen to like not only what this saint did but also where he did it, and the things that he became the patron saint of as well. I'm talking about Saint Urban of Langres in France. He was bishop of that place and during a period of persecution of Christians he hid for a short time in a vineyard. Whilst there he converted the vine dressers who then helped him in his underground ministry. Due to their work, and to Urban’s personal devotion to the Holy Blood of Christ, he developed great affection towards all the people in the wine industry, and they for him, as well. He died a natural death round about AD390 and because of his sojourn in the vineyard his intercession is often prayed for to ask for G-d's help against alcoholism, against blight, against fainting, against faintness, against frost and against storms. He has also become the patron saint of barrel makers, coopers, Dijon in France, gardeners, Langres in France, vine dressers, vine growers and vintners.

I'm very partial to the odd drop of good French wine and I am rather fond of St. Urban, just like all of those who make my favorite wines. However, throughout Christian history wine has always stood for the Holy Blood of Christ and Urban had a personal devotion to that mystical concept (I've no intention of discussing the Church's teachings about transubstantiation, consubstantiation, or symbolism in this context). His devotion should also remind us that the fruits of the earth are great gifts won by the labour of many people. Further, it should also remind us that we Christians and other civilised people trust ourselves to use wine and that the reason that the Mohammedans don't use it is a devil inspired stab at the heart of our Christianity, our Judeo-Christian heritage and our civilisations. Don't make the mistake of thinking that the Mohammedan prohibition on alcohol is somehow just one of the evils of that stinking belief system and of no real concern to us. That prohibition is a direct attack on all of us and you can gather that any time that you care to listen to the gross and sickening Mohammedans as they routinely insult us, our lives, our culture, our faiths and our histories. Moreover, by insulting our use of wine the disgusting Mohammedans are also insulting and attempting to suppress the very communion services that we offer as a perpetual Easter each and every Sunday -- without wine Christ's institution of the memory of His sacrifice is effectively diminished.

So, the next time that you fancy a glass of wine remember St. Urban and all that he, and the wine, stands for. Having done so, raise your glass and enjoy the hard won fruit of the vine - your toast should be 'St. Urban, and down with Islam!'.

The twenty-fourth of January brings us to the excellent Saint Francis de Sales. You can find a complete short biography of him by clicking on this link, but I want to concentrate on one particular aspect of his life. He wrote extensively, mostly on aspects of the Christian faith - letters, treatises, sermons, leaflets, spiritual addresses and opuscula12 and his surviving works run to many volumes. Most importantly he wrote for public consumption and the value of his writings led to him being declared a Doctor of the Church by Pope The Blessed Pius IX in 1877. However, what is interesting to those of us who contribute to NER is that he was established as a patron of writers and journalists by Pope Pius XI in 1923, so, in a sense he is also a patron saint of all of us.

St. Francis de Sales led an exemplary life full of humility, charity and good works but the one thing that marked him out was his continual emphasis on love - the love of G-d and the love we should all have for all our fellow men regardless of what they might be. Spiritual love and platonic love for all his fellows dominated St Francis' life. That love is one essential part of Christianity and it differs hugely from anything that Mohammedans believe in, or that they can cull from the supremacist and racist teachings and sayings of their base and vicious demon prophet. The emphasis on love is also common to most people in most non-Mohammedan societies as well.

St. Francis taught that we can follow G-d's message of love by frequent remembrance of His presence, by filial prayer, by having a right intention in all our actions, by having frequent recourse to Him in our use of pious statements in our speech and by making sure that our private and interior aspirations and wants are in conformity with what we know to be right. It's not difficult and, whether we are Christian or otherwise, we have St. Francis' own life as an example to guide us into the path of love.

Incidentally, and just as an aside as it were, the Saint François Atoll in the Seychelles Islands is named after him.

Saint Peter Thomas is my saint for the twenty-fifth. He was a Carmelite from a very poor background in Perigord in France and by his own efforts he rose through the church to become a bishop and then, in May AD1364, the Latin Patriarch of Constantinople. He worked tirelessly for the reunification of the Roman and Greek Churches. He was part of Pope Innocent VI plans for the re-formation of the anti-Turkish League that had been set up in 1350 and he led (he was in the van of the attack brandishing what was reputed to have been a piece of the true cross and he was quite badly wounded) a very successful campaign against the dark forces of Mohammedanism which resulted in the total ejection of that satanic horde from Alexandria (in early October, 1365). The victory could have been "a great and memorable work" (to quote Petrarch, Senilia, VIII, 8) had not the Latin army, through a probably groundless fear of a counter-attack, and against the opinion of Peter Thomas and a few others, shamefully abandoned Alexandria, (on October the sixteenth, 1365). Peter Thomas afterwards wrote a very sad letter to Pope Urban V and to the emperor, Charles IV, about this event13.

That wasn't the first time that he had been involved against the evil Mohammedans; during a crossing of the Adriatic in early 1355 the Saint had led, successfully, the defense of his group of travelers against a Mohammedan, probably Turkish, attack14. On Easter Sunday in 1360, at Famagusta on Cyprus, he crowned Peter of Lusignan as King of Jerusalem15, which was a demonstration of his faith in the prospects for ejecting the devil-worshippers from the occupied lands of the Middle East.

In January of 1366 Saint Peter Thomas went home to G-d. He knew first-hand of the savagery of the execrable, ungodly, occupying Mohammedans and he sustained wounds at their hands that probably hastened his earthly ending. Though as a priest he never raised a weapon himself he knew how to lead and how to inspire in battle and he did not lack courage. Although in our day and age we don't, unless it can't be helped, deal with the sickening Mohammedans in the way that was done in the time of this Saint, we still have need of courage - the courage to defend ourselves against the demonic Mohammedan legions in everyday things. Who knows, however, whether or not one day we might need the same courage as that possessed by the Saint - we may yet have to do bloody battle with the unholy Mohammedans and we will have his example to fortify ourselves with.

My final saint for this sennight resisted an altogether different tyranny - albeit, one that is much admired and emulated by the repulsive and immoral Mohammedans. For the twenty-sixth of January I have chosen to commemorate The Blessed Michaël Kozal.

He was born into a peasant family on the twenty-seventh of September in AD1893 at Ligota, Wielkopolskie in Poland. He was ordained priest in 1918, and appointed auxiliary bishop of Wloclawek, Poland and titular bishop of Lappa by Pope Pius XII on the tenth of June in 1939. He was arrested by the Gestapo on the seventh of November in 1939 as part of the Nazi persecution of the Church, and all Christians. He was imprisoned and tortured in several different places - at Wloclawek, Lad, Szczeglin, Berlin. Finally, he spent a year and nine months in Dachau extermination camp at Oberbayern in Germany. Whilst he was there he ministered to the other prisoners and suffered violent abuse from the guards.

On the twenty-sixth of January in 1943 Bishop Kozal, who had been assigned the camp number 24544, was murdered by being injected with poison by the camp doctors. His body was incinerated in the camp crematorium on the thirtieth. In the cathedral of Wloclawek there is a stone monument that was erected in 1954 to commemorate the martyrdom of Bishop Michaël Kozal and the two-hundred-and-twenty other priests of the diocese who were murdered in Dachau also.

We all know the admiration that the perverted Mohammedans have for Hitler and the Nazis (see this recent post at NER by Jerry for just the most recent example of the Mohammedan liking for the barbarity of the Nazis), and we all know just how similar the Mohammedan thinking about Jews and Christians is to Nazi thinking about the same subjects, but do we have the courage to stand up to the foul and depraved Mohammedans in the same way that Michaël Kozal, and an almost countless number of others, stood up to the degenerate Nazis. I hope so!

If your courage wavers just remember all the saints - and particularly remember The Blessed Michaël Kozal and be inspired. He kept the faith and continued to minister to people even in Dachau.

By-the-by, the twenty-sixth of January is also the day on which we commemorate St. Paul's conversion on the road to Damascus. St. Paul was the prime mover in the early church in taking the message of Jesus out from the Holy Land to the Gentiles -- without him the development of our One True Faith would probably have been a lot slower. If you are ever at Rome then go to the Papal Basilica of St. John Lateran and pay your respects to St. Paul for his head, and St. Peter's head as well (the founding Apostle of Christ), are entombed beneath the High Altar there. St. Paul's body is beneath the Papal Altar in St. Paul's Papal Basilica (often called the church of St. Paul Outside the Walls) and St. Peter's body is, naturally, beneath the Papal Altar in St. Peter's Papal Basilica in the Vatican. (The last of the four Papal Basilicas at Rome is Santa Maria Maggiore -- St. Mary the Great or St. Mary Major [because the four Papal Basilicas at Rome are the Major Basilicas and all other basilicas are Minor Basilicas] -- and there is a tradition that the Apostle Matthew is buried somewhere under this church.)

More saints next week - if the good Lord spares me.


* The Latin words, Dies Gloriae, in this title mean 'Days of Glory' and come from Saint Thomas Aquinas' Summa Theologiae: Volume 30, The Gospel of Grace: q. 114 a. 8 co. 109-114: "[...] Prov. IV[:VIII], ["]iustorum semita quasi lux splendens procedit, et crescit usque ad perfectum diem["], [St. Jerome's Vulgate Latin Bible] qui est dies gloriae." ("...Proverbs 4:18: "But the path of the just, as a shining light, goeth forwards, and increaseth even to perfect day.," [Douay-Rheims Bible] which is the days of glory.")

1) For the other posts in this series click on the following links: (i) 'Dies Gloriae'*: From The Feast Of The Circumcision To The Epiphany (Dies Gloriae I), (ii) 'Dies Gloriae'* II: From Saint Raymond To Saint Benedict Biscop, (iii) 'Dies Gloriae'* III: From Saint Gumesindus To Saint Macarius The Great,

2) You can find my posts at NER about some of the various other ways in which we use the splendour of the days at: (i) On the Hours and the fightback against Mohammedan incursions in the workplace , (ii) on Advent , (iii) on Ash Wednesday , (iv) on Shrovetide , (v) on St. Valentine and his day , (vi) on the Golden Prayer to the Immaculate Heart of Mary , (vii) on Candlemas , (viii) on one aspect of the Epiphany , (ix) on St. Priscilla - 16th. January , (x) on Twefth Night and the Epiphany , (xi) on St. Thomas Beckett and the Sts. Trophimus - 29th. December , (xii) on St. Gelasius - 21st. November , (xiii) on St. Gregory of Palamas and hesychasm (meditation) 14th. November , (xiv) on the Venerable Bede and music (especially Christmas Carols) , (xv) on St. Justus - 10th. November , (xvi) on St. Efflam - 7th. November , (xvi) on St.Leonard of Noblac - 6th. November , (xvii) on bonfires and saints , (xviii) here on Christmas Carols , (xix) and here , (xx) and here , (xxi) and here , (xxii) and here , (xxiii) and here , (xxiv) and here , (xxv) and here , (xxvi) and here , (xxvii) and here , (xxviii) and here , (xxix) on Bright Week (Holy Week) , (xxx) on St. Nicholas Owen - 22nd. March , (xxxi) on resolutions and Twelfth Night , (xxxii) on the Archbishop of Glasgow's Great Curse , (xxxiii) on Martinmas (Martlemas) , (xxxiv) on lighting the Guy Fawkes bonfire from the Sanctuary flame , (xxxv) on a Bonfire Night and a Martlemas scurrilous rhyme , (xxxvi) here on windows in churches and letting the light of God out , (xxxvii) and here , (xxxviii) on God being an Englishman , (xxxix) on Christianophobia; and added to those posts are my short stories at NER that indirectly address the same thing and they can be found at: (a) An Advent Tale, Or, Christmas Miracles Do Happen , (b) Holy Water, Or, There Is An Eastertide In The Affairs Of Men , (c) If Quires Of Angels Did Rejoice , (d) I Call The Living - I Mourn The Dead - I Break The Lightning .

3) See Footnote (9) at 'Dies Gloriae'* III: From Saint Gumesindus To Saint Macarius The Great for an explanation of my use of the word 'oikophobia'.

4) A 'laura' is a cluster of built cells, or caves, occupied by hermits and usually having a church, and sometimes a refectory, as its focal points. In other words, it's a type of monastery.

5) The Monophysite heresiarchs denied, and preached against, the G-d given mystery of the Hypostatic Union of Christ's nature, i.e. that Jesus was both fully human and fully divine when he lived on earth, and thereby unwittingly undermined the essential efficacy of His sacrifice. The heresy has still not vanished even today - certain protestant churches and their members are often, unwittingly in some cases, of the heretical Monophysite persuasion, especially in the U.S.A.

6) The presence of Arabians at Pentecost and Saint Paul's three-year sojourn in Arabia suggest a very early presence of Christianity in Arabia. A fourth century church history states that the Apostle Saint Bartholomew preached in Arabia. The recent uncovering of the Church at Al-Jubail (that the current government of Mohammedan occupied Arabia won't let anyone visit or even get close to) that was built in what is now Mohammedan occupied Saudi Arabia in the fourth century, coupled with recent satellite observations of the entire peninsula that show a plethora of Christian sites, proves that the faith was once widespread in Arabia.

Christians had formed churches in Arabia prior to the time of Mohammed. Some parts of modern Mohammedan occupied Arabia (such as Najran) were predominantly Christian up to the tenth century, when most Christians, in the usual fashion of the crazed believers in Mohammed, were either violently expelled or forcibly converted to his monstrous belief system. (It seems likely from our records that some Arabian tribes, such as Banu Taghlib and Banu Tamim, followed Christianity. As a result of giving their help to Mohammed in his conquest of Arabia it seems the Banu Taghlib were allowed to keep their Christian faith and their status as Arabs if they paid the Jizya and promised not to interfere in the preaching or propagation of Islam. That situation, naturally, did not last for the untrustworthy and barbarous Mohammedans reneged on the agreement, as they always do with any agreement, as soon as they could.)

There is a possible interpretation of the old records that indicates that there was a Christian community in Najran in southern Arabia that was in conflict with the rulers of Yemen around fourth to fifth century (oddly, those rulers could have been Jewish at the time). However, much is speculation and such records as have survived are incomplete and open to a variety of interpretations, but the one thing that they do prove, quite conclusively, is that Christianity had spread widely amongst the peoples of the Arabian peninsula before the diabolical Mohammed began his fiendishly wicked campaigns.

There is also a tradition that states that the Apostle Saint Matthew was assigned to Arabia. Also, Eusebius (in his Pantodape historia, 'Universal history', often called the Chronicon, 'Chronicle') says that (circa AD190) "one Pantaneous was sent from Alexandria as a missionary to the nations of the East," including southwest Arabia, on his way to India.

7) The ancient Aberdeen Breviary (Breviarium Aberdonense) can best be described as the Sarum Office in a Scottish form. The usage of the ancient Church of Salisbury was generally adopted in Scotland and Ireland during the Middle Ages, both for the Liturgy and for the canonical hours (see the Catholic Encyclopedia at wikisource). The Chronicon Skonense that is attached to the Aberdeen Breviary is a copy of the suggested prayers for various saints (Scottish and otherwise) with reference to the history of their lives. This chronicle was most probably written by the monks at the Abbey of Scone, once the most important abbey in Scotland, which was destroyed at the reformation. However, since the Breviary of Aberdeen was mainly the work of the learned and pious Bishop William Elphinstone of Aberdeen (who reigned as bishop from 1483 to his death in 1514) and we know that not only did he bring together the materials but in some instances, notably in that of the Scottish saints, he also composed the lessons, then it is not impossible, indeed it is likely, that the Chronicle is mainly, or completely, his work also.

8) 'Computus' ('computation') is the calculation of the date of Easter for either the Gregorian or the Julian calendar. This word has been used for this calculation since the early Middle Ages when it was considered to be the most important computation that could be undertaken due to its Christian spiritual importance rather than for any other reason.

9) February has always had twenty-eight days, and that goes back to the eighth century BC when a Roman king by the name of Numa Pompilius established the basic Roman calendar.

10) Esme documents many of the crimes against children and women that are committed by Mohammedans in the UK, and some others that take place elsewhere against women and children, in her blog posts here at NER in The Iconoclast. The most recent Mohammdan outrages she has recorded here and here and here and here and here. Searching her Iconoclast posts is very instructive as to the sheer horror of the acts that Mohammedans are capable of when it comes to women, children, or the vulnerable in any society.

11) The Church of San Salvatore in Onda is dedicated to Christ the Holy Saviour. The church, which is at 57 Via Pettinari, at Rome, first came to prominence in the twelfth century. It's built on ancient Roman remains with an eighth century crypt, but it has been restored several times so there are not many traces of its Medieval buildings left. The church was given to St. Vincent when he established his missionary society, the Pallotines, in 1835.

12) Plural of 'opuscule', which word means 'a short, or a minor, literary or musical work'.

13) N. Jorga, 'Philippe de Méztères 1327-1405 et la croisade au XIV siecle', Paris, 1896, pp. 135-140.

14) J. Smet, 'The Life of Saint Peter Thomas by Philippe de Mézières', Rome, 1954.

15) L. Macheras, 'Chronique de Chypre', in the translation by E. Miller-C. Sathas, Paris, 1882, pp. 56-9; and also in: J. Smet, 'The Life of Saint Peter Thomas by Philippe de Mézières', Rome, 1954, pp. 90-92.

Posted on 01/20/2013 12:28 PM by John M. Joyce
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Join leaders of the American Middle Eastern community to endorse

Donald J. Trump
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