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The German Turk connection
"comment on Oppenheim actually motivating the Turks to call a jihad in order to destabilise the British Empire."-- from a reader
See scholarly works, such as Vahakn Dadrian's works on the massacres of Armenians in Turkey (those that began in 1915), and works intended for a larger audience, such as Peter Hopkirk's "Setting the World Aflame." If you google "Max von Oppenheim" and "jihad" plenty should come up; look especially for an article by Wolfgang Schwanitz, but there's all sorts of stuff. The idea was simple: have the Ottoman government issue a fatwa against the Allies (England, France, and Russia) as oppressors of Muslims, and hope especially that it would rouse Muslims against the English in both the Middle East and, especially, in India. It wasn't very effective, but in those days the Muslims were without the OPEC trillions, without means of mass dissemination of material (no Internet or satellite television, no videocassettes or audiocassettes, no television, no radio, mass illiteracy), impoverished (no ten trillion dollars in OPEC money), as there is both the means for funding the Jihad, and the means of dissemination and whipping up Muslim masses, and groups, and individuals, all over the place.
The Jihad was declared in Constantinople in 1915; for various reasons the copy of it possessed by the American State Department was kept secret, off-limits, until the late 1950s. I don't know why. There are many such puzzlements and mysteries. Perhaps no one in the Department understood its significance, and therefore why it might matter. Jefferson and Madison and Adams and William Eaton would have understood. But those were different people, of an altogether different mental formation, than what we have today -- have, for example, as members of Baker's Iraq Study Group.