by Jerry Gordon and Lt. Gen. Abakar M. Abdallah (November 2022)
Sudan’s Military Junta Deepening Ties with Putin, Moscow while Russia invades Ukraine
Overview of Sudan Crisis
Sudan is at war with remnants of the Islamic extremist National Congress Party Jihadist militants. With the removal of former President Bashir in April 2019, people hoped for democratic civilian governance and the well-being of the people of Sudan. Unfortunately, the political unrest in Sudan remained the same with no changes on the ground.
With the overthrow of the transitional sovereignty council by the military Junta in the October 2021 coup, Sudan’s situation became worse. The living conditions have worsened. The security situation is volatile and the political landscape in the country increasingly become fragile, unstable and the future of the Sudanese state is uncertain.
The former regime’s Islamist Rapid Support Force/Janjaweed (RSF/J) have been given free reign by the Junta leaders, been trained by Putin’s Wagner mercenaries; and they are granted authority by Sudan’s security apparatus that effectively monopolizes and exploits the country’s agricultural and natural resources such as gold, uranium, rare minerals.
The RSF/J militias continuously commit atrocities against peaceful protesters and innocent undefended indigenous populations in Darfur, Nuba Mountains and Blue Nile regions. The Islamist Junta leaders wield unjust authoritarian power refusing overwhelming demands of people to establish a civilian-led transitional authority to prepare the country for a democratic transparent elections. The Junta is riven by a struggle for control between General Abdelfattah Abderhaman Al-Burhan Chairman of the Transitional Sovereignty Council General who controls the Sudan Armed Forces (SAF) and his Deputy, General Mohamed Hamdan Dogolo aka “Hemeti” commander of the RSF/J. Hemeti is the principal contact for Russia’s Putin and the paramilitary Wagner Group for exploitation of the country’s economic resources for personal gain amid a deliberate campaign fostering internecine tribal warfare, Islamist ethnic cleansing and genocide of indigenous people in the major conflict areas in Darfur, the Nuba Mountains and the Blue Nile region.
The Khartoum Junta regime is no longer supported by the majority of Sudanese. Therefore, international assistance must be enlisted to replace it. We call upon the international community to provide assistance to the Sudan United Movement led by US trained experienced military and political figures with similar assistance that is provided to Ukraine so that we make regime change and put an end to Putin’s exploitation of gold, uranium and other rare minerals in Sudan.
Geostrategic Position of Sudan
Sudan is vast in terms of land mass. It occupies an area of 1,886,068 square kilometers (728,215 square miles) with a population of 46,874,204. Sudan occupies a vital strategic position because it links Sub-Saharan Africa with the Arab world across the Red Sea and North Africa through Darfur. It is bordered to the North by Libya, to the West by the Republic of Chad, to the Southwest by the Central African Republic (CAR), and to the South-by-South Sudan. Sudan borders Ethiopia and Eritrea to the East, it borders Saudi Arabia across the Red Sea.
Similarly, Darfur occupies a vital strategic location linking the African sub-Saharan with Sahel Sahara North African states and Europe through the vast Sahara desert Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean. Darfur is located at a vital strategic point in the continent linking west African nations and north Africa. Since the early days of Islam, the Darfur Region become a major transit point for traders and pilgrimages from West Africa to visit the Holy Shrine in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Darfur also shares a large part of Sahara desert links to Libya and Egypt.
Topographically, the northern parts of the country from Darfur to the Red Sea is occupied by desert with scattered mountains and hills. This part of the country has severe weather conditions characterized by heat, dust and scarcity of water. It is cold during the winter and hot during the summer.
The southern part of Sudan from CAR to the Blue Nile region is covered by dense tropical forests and thick vegetation with mountains, rivers and long periods of rainy seasons from April to November. The area currently known as the central region of Sudan, the capital Khartoum is a confluence of Blue Nile and White Nile to form River Nile. The Atbara River originates in Ethiopia and joins the Nile at Atbara City that flows to Egypt.
Blue Nile Tribal Clashes and RSF/Janjaweed Attacks Nuba Mountains Villages
Tribal clashes between Hausa and indigenous tribes of Blue Nile resumed on October 19, 2022 in the villages of Wad Al Mahi District. This tribal conflict began July, 2022 and resumed this September. Engineer, Izadin Adam, President of Social Services and High Committee for Disaster Relief of Blue Nile, reported that over 220 people are reported dead, and more than 200 others were injured. The casualties might rise because there are villages where investigators still have no access. Dr Jamal Nasir, Minister of Health of Blue Nile said that people were brutally killed in a savage way. Homes were torched with people inside. Despite these horrible attacks the government failed to protect the people even though security forces were present. The Minister further stated that these might have been perpetrated by foreign Islamist forces. He said that the brutal way of killing resembles those of Boko Haram.
Similarly, Adil Ibrahim Agar, the Governor of Ar Roseires indicated that the killing of women, children, elders and throwing their bodies on fire is an act that resembles those of Boko Haram. He suspected the Jihadist group of having reinforced one of the attackers. Surprisingly, Hausa youth in Khartoum declared Jihad on Blue Nile people and they are going to Ad-Adamazin. Ramadan Yasin, a Humanitarian Representative of the Blue Nile, said to Aljazeera that about 1400 families were forced from their homes and currently living in schools in Damazin while others fled the region. These internally displaced persons lost everything in their possession. They are badly in need of humanitarian assistance to survive. Following the killings, rapes and destructions of homes; Governor Bady imposed a curfew for 30 days.
Al Fatih Adlan, the tribal Chief of Blue Nile reported to the Arab Television channel that tribal chiefs are continuing meetings trying to find solutions. These clashes created security instability in the Blue Nile Region; unfortunately, Sudan government security forces are nowhere to be seen. These tribal clashes and the absence of government authority sparked demonstrations calling for relief of the Governor of the Blue Nile Ahmed Al Omda Bady, who was appointed based on his involvement with the Juba Peace Agreement. The protesters accused him of causing these tribal conflicts to create political support for the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-North faction led by Malik Agar.
Sources acquainted with the Blue Nile tribal structure indicated that Malik Agar and his group originated from a minority ethnic group in the region, so their movement lacked popular support. Therefore, they want to benefit from the large Hausa community and build a political base. Hausa are immigrants from Nigeria, but they have lived in this region peacefully with indigenous populations for hundreds of years without problems. Even though there are over 400 casualties reported of deaths and injuries in this tribal conflict, no government security forces are present despite continuing attack and burning of villages with deaths and injuries. The situation is tense. Many people suggest that the Islamic Movement fascist policies intended to destroy both Hausa and indigenous tribes so that they could occupy the land.
Similar fighting erupted between Misseriya and Nuba tribes on Friday October 15, 2022 in the town of Lagawa, West Kordofan Region. The RSF/J sided with the Misseriya tribe and massacred Nuba and displaced them from their homes. Reports accuse the RSF/Janjaweed of looting, burning homes and stores belonging to the displaced Nuba. About 7000 internally displaced people reported to have arrived in Koda among them were women, children and elders. They arrived exhausted with nothing to sustain living. Chamsun Khamis Kafi, the President of Nuba Assembly, stated in his press brief in Khartoum on October 21, 2022 that the plan to kill Nuba people was well organized in advance. He said, people are shot like animals in the wilderness. They indiscriminately shoot people walking in the street and seize their properties. They also shot people working on their farms. He accused the RSF/J Commander, General Hamdan Dogolo aka “Hemeti” the Deputy Chairman of the Sudan’s Transitional Sovereignty Council, of committing ethnic cleansing and human right abuses against Nuba people. Kafi requested immediate withdrawal of RSF/J from Lagawa, replacing them with the Sudan Armed Forces unit. RSF/J attacks in Lagawa prove that Janjaweed are targeting not only Darfur people but all indigenous populations of Sudan. They ethnically cleanse indigenous people and occupy their land.
The Junta Alliance with Putin’s Wagner Group
The Battle for freedom in the indigenous resistance conflict zones is stoked by the junta growing alliance of the RSF/J militias and Putin’s Wagner paramilitary group. Witness the agreement between Putin and the Khartoum regime to construct a seaport in Port Sudan and the visit of Hemeti to Russia at the start of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. The Wagner Group established a military base in Am Dafok, South Darfur overseeing Janjaweed training and exploiting neighboring Central African gold mining operations. Sudan’s ruling Junta regularly denies they are cooperating with Putin in its war against Ukraine. Whatever they did to cover up their actions with disinformation, one way or another the real information leaks out.
On October 2, 2002, Sudan social media reported that Putin delivered weapons to Hemeti’s RSF/J from Russia to Port Sudan. The SAF seized the weapons and refused to hand them over to Janjaweed, protesting that RSF/J militias had no authorization to import weapons. Further, there was a request that the RSF/J should be integrated into the SAF; an idea rejected by Hemeti. Despite SAF and RSF/J working closely together supporting one another, this incident illustrates increasing problems between Junta leaders Hemeti and Burhan. The dispute arose because Hemeti requested Burhan to hand him weapons or reimburse the money that he had paid to Putin’s Wagner for the shipment.
Mohamed Ibrahim reported from Nyala, South Darfur that the Ministry of Economic and Financial Affairs received a delegation of visiting Russian investors. They want to invest in processing nutritional agricultural products including sugar and meat. They want to establish canned meat and sugar processing factories. The investors also wanted to build a cement factory. Surprisingly, the investors have not mentioned gold. They most likely fear US criticism of Wagner Group exploitation of Gold, uranium and other rare minerals in Sudan and adjacent Sahel countries. The Russian delegation visit confirms that the junta is lying to the US about working closely with Putin’s Wagner Group. This is buttressed by revelations about the deepening of relations of the junta with Russia’s Wagner Group, especially in Darfur, exploiting gold, uranium and meat processing of rustled herds of livestock from indigenous farms by the RSF/J militias. Effectively, political Islam in Sudan is coming back with the support of the Wagner Group using RSF/J militias.
Dangerous Presence of Weapons of Mass Destruction
Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are composed of Nuclear, Chemical and Biological. These weapons pose the greatest threat to humanity because they cause mass destruction. As a result, the international community banned the use of these weapons. Only a few countries in the world have these capabilities and its technology is strictly controlled. Regardless of interdiction, some states use chemical and biological agents in their wars. These chemical agents can be acquired from rogue states.
Sudan government forces have been accused of using chemical weapons in their civil wars in South Sudan, Nuba Mountains and in Darfur. Despite reports and allegations, the international community has not taken tangible steps to verify and establish facts on this serious matter to hold Former President Bashir and his regime responsible. The Chairman of the Transitional Sovereign Council, General Abdelfattah Abderhaman Burhan and his Deputy General Mohamed Hamdan Dogolo (Hemeti) were the commanders directly responsible for using chemical weapons in Darfur. The gun was operated by Sudan’s Special Forces Officers but under the direct supervision of Sudan’s Intelligence and Security Services. They were directly in charge of the operations of Jebel Marra in which Amnesty International reported that chemical agents were allegedly used in 2016. They are also responsible of committing genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity in Darfur.
The type of weapons they used to deliver chemical agents in Jebel Marra as well as in the other areas mentioned above was Grenade Launcher AGS-17mm made in Russian or its variant. In Sudan, this gun is nicknamed Kelib al Ameriki (American Dog). This gun was initially an ordinary weapon from its manufacturer but the Sudanese regime, through the help of Russians, filled the rounds with some type of deadly chemical agent. The weapons are imported from Russia but assembled in Sudan’s Yarmouk Military Complex and Jiyad Automobile Assembly Factory. Both of these factors have a section controlled by Russian specialists dealing with chemical agents. The chemical ammunitions are also filled in Yarmouk and Jiyad by Russians. The grenade launcher is mounted on tripods on top of vehicles and at times in helicopters. The gun fires 4 different types of smoke rounds and they fire it against the wind. When fired, it produces poisonous smoke, causes the victim to vomit blood, skin blisters, turns skin black, flesh falls off, breathing become difficult and eventually the victims die.
The Sudan regime is filling AGS-17mm rounds with a deadly chemical agent still its origin is unknown. Therefore, there is a need for us to be vigilant of these weapons and report to the international community to take action. The SUM Chairman is working to bring the international community to inspect Sudan of such chemical weapons, especially Jiyad Factory and Yarmouk Military Complex to determine the type of agent to prevent its use and hold the regime accountable.
Sudan’s Seven Decade War against its Indigenous people.
With financial and military assistance from some Arab States, the Sudan government formed, and equipped RSF/J militias recruited from foreign Arab tribal and multi-national terrorist groups with armed Toyota Pickup truck reinforced by Russia type BTR-Tanks, new-generation Chinese T96 and upgraded T59 Main Battle Tanks, T92 wheeled infantry fighting vehicles. The RSF/J militias are also supported by Russian M-35 Helicopter Gun Ships, Mig-29, or Su-5 Chinese jet fighters, Antonov An-24/26 converted Bombers, (retrofitted cargo plane) which is very effective in aerial bombardments especially of Darfur civilian settlements.
In Darfur, the RSF/J militias attack villagers and Internally Displaced Persons (IDP) camps. They kidnap people for ransom, women for sexual exploitation, and abduct children for slavery. Moreover, the militias engaged in the expropriation of land, pillage, plunder villagers, graze animals on farms, monopolize the transportation sector and seize livestock by robbing and killing people in any passenger pickup trucks that do not belong to them. The Janjaweed brutally murder and slaughter in cold blood hundreds of civilians. These attacks prohibited people from farming and animal husbandry, the principal occupation of most of Darfuris. Fearing for their lives, most of the villagers remain in the IDP camps and survive on international relief supplies.
Since the genocidal war started in 2003, an estimated 600,000 people of Darfur have been killed. More than 5 million others were uprooted from their homes and forced to live in IDPs and UNHCR refugee camps. About 3 million are living in some 70 cramped IDPs camps. Over 500,000 sought refuge in the adjacent countries of Chad, the Central African Republic, Niger, and elsewhere.
Behind these brutal atrocities of genocide and ethnic cleansing, lie long-standing oil-rich Middle East Arab leaders hungry for land and mineral resources. They provided funding and material support to the Khartoum regime to continually recruit more mercenaries from foreign nations to maintain the effectiveness of RSF/J. Since the October 2021 the overthrow of the Transitional Sovereignty Council by the Temporary Military Council, it has relied on Putin’s Wagner mercenary army to provide training and weapons to the RSF/J militias. The Khartoum regime and its RSF/J militia’s ultimate goal is to remove indigenous African people of Darfur and Nuba Mountains from their land by force and replace them with settlers of Arab tribes the regime brought from abroad. The Darfur genocide was planned and organized under the so-called Arab Coalition Plan of the Khartoum regime using RSF/J militias to exterminate indigenous African people occupy their land and exploit mineral resources. These atrocities have been carried out under the supervision of Sudan government security forces.
Even though the Juba peace agreement was signed in October 2020, when some resistance movements were co-opted by the RSF/J and became part of the military junta government. In reality peace is nowhere to be seen. Those resistance leaders who signed the Juba Agreement were unaware that peace negotiations with the Sudan Junta are used to suppress the resistance allowing the regime to continue oppressing indigenous people. The volatile security situation in Darfur is worsening as the RSF/J militias themselves represent government security forces, as well as the perpetrators. They forced inhabitants to live in the densely populated IDP camps where the humanitarian aid was reduced to less than half the normal ration. Most of the children who live in these camps suffer from malnutrition. Moreover, the newly displaced people, mostly women, children, and elderly are the most affected due to the shortages of food, lack of potable water, sanitation as well as shelter. Peace will not come to Sudan without dismantling the Arab-Islamic regime in Khartoum.
From its early stages, the civil war of Sudan has been a conflict of ideology, tribalism and a battle of arms. It’s a minority extremist Arab-Islamic nationalists imposed their identity on the majority indigenous African population. They exploit both Islam religion and Arab identity only to advance their tribal and personal goals. Bashir’s National Congress Party regime was brought down by the September 2018 revolution but the Arab-Islamic Islamist Movement government that formed at independence remained in control. Through the cooperation of the security apparatus and Sudan’s traditional political parties, they hijacked the revolution with the intention to maintain the same system. Prior to dispersing protesters, the Transitional Military Council secretly consulted with some members of the Forces of Freedom and Change and dispersed the Army Headquarters protest-sit-in by the use of force that killed thousands of protesters. The grotesque product of this misalliance were unburied corpses of the murdered protesters hidden from the public and their families for the next three years. The bodies of these protesters were discovered in the country’s mortuaries rotting away. Therefore, it’s clear that the Arab-Islamic system of government in Khartoum poses threats to the existence of Sudan and its indigenous people.
History of Sudan’s Continuous Struggle with Sectarian Islamist tribal politics
Sudan has been in a near century-long crisis of political instability. That began during colonial rule between 1923-24 with the White Flag League Revolutionary group organized by Lieutenant Ali Abdel Latif and his colleagues revolting against Anglo–Egyptian Condominium Rule. The revolutionary resistance continued with Sudan’s post-independence in 1955 to the present day. Unfortunately, the true Sudanese state has not been established. A minority group of people identified themselves as Arabs inherited power from the British colonial authority and refused to share it with the rest of the Sudanese society. In addition to excluding the majority of people from sharing state resources with them, they failed to build a country of equal opportunities that incorporated all the Sudanese societies.
These political elites came from the Sudanese population that lived in Khartoum and along the River Nile up to Halfa, the border with Egypt. They control all government institutions, including the security forces, economic resources as well as political parties in the country. Moreover, subjugation of South Sudanese and other peripheral regions of the Sudan were left out of the country’s politics and used as a space for cheap labor and recruitment of soldiers.
Founded on the basis of Islamic extremist ideology from the early days of independence, they hijacked Sudan and its people of African origin with their various multi-cultural societies and formed an Arab state which made Sudan become a member of the Arab League. By doing so, they unjustly excluded the majority of Sudanese indigenous societies with their rich cultures and linguistic diversity. Based on their discriminatory ideology, they failed to build a united Sudanese state with equal rights of citizenship, justice and fair economic development.
By implementing these erroneous policies, they ruled the country through barbarism, savagery and cruelty for over 60 years which resulted into committing genocide, ethnic cleansing, crimes against humanity, and human right abuses that contributed to the collapse of the existing Sudanese state. In order to maintain power, this extremist Islamist Arab Nationalist minority group using government authority and deception making itself to appear majority in Sudan; in reality, it is a minority represent only five percent of the Sudanese societies. More important note to mention is that the group does not hesitate to use force to thwart those from claiming their just rights. This brutal campaign, estimated to have decimated over 5 million Sudanese people including those of South Sudan. Their objective is to maintain power and tribal dominance oppressing the indigenous Sudanese societies. It was one Arab tribe absolutely dominating over 500 indigenous multi-cultural ones.
Since the early days of independence, the politics of Sudan have been dominated by the sheiks of religious sects and political parties leaders who had no goals other than personal, tribal, and religious ambitions. They disrupt any attempt to restore democratic rule for millions of Sudanese, especially those in regions remote from Khartoum. Since independence, no single elected President has ever finished his legal term. Instead, they have been overthrown by the military with the support of rival Islamist parties.
The internal battles between religiously oriented sectarian parties began in the early days of Sudan’s first Prime Minister Ismail al Azhari’s rule that was systematically distorted and paralyzed by a corrupt parliament. Ultimately, he failed to secure votes and resigned in July 1956, replaced by Abdallah Khalil. The same Islamic political parties continued their internal battles weakening Khalil’s rule. Eventually he handed over his government through a staged military coup by General Ibrahim Abud in 1959. The battle between these fragile political parties continues to this day because they do not agree on anything thereby creating a vacuum seized by successive military juntas exercising dictatorial control and despoiling the country’s riches.
Despite their ideological differences and inability to agree among themselves, Sudan’s political elites usually unite their political parties together around the racial divide of the Sudanese society into Arab and indigenous Africans. These political parties are divided into three main groups. The first group are conservative sectarian and Islamic parties. The second group includes Communists and Sudan’s Socialist Union. The third group incorporates racially oriented parties such as Arab Ba’ath Socialism, Nasserism, Socialist Republican Party, Arab Nationalism and others.
It was at these early stages the tribal political elites formed these racial ethnocentric political parties led by people who came from one dominant region of Sudan, the North. They fought internal battles to control power and collectively fought against the rest of the Sudan’s population denying them a share of state power and resources. The structure of these parties is characterized by a weak coalition motivated mostly through personal and family interests and allegiance to religious sects, tribalism, as well as foreign Arab and Islamist rulers.
It is no surprise to learn that the policies of Sudan were defined by these extremist Arab-Islamic religious sectarian leaders who fostered hatred and discrimination against indigenous people for no other reason than their being black. They control power through their dominance in the central government. Moreover, they consider their blood superior to that of the indigenous Africans.
Such sanguinary beliefs became the main factor provoking discrimination against the largest section of Sudanese society of African origin and consequently resulted in conflicts. Within this context, they invented what became the so-called Arab identity seeking to impose it on the indigenous African population. This behavior created a state of confusion of identity not only among the Arab inhabitants of Sudan but in the entire country as well.
It was at this very early stage that the cultural and political identity of the country was rigged in favor of the Arabs and against the will of the majority of the Sudanese society of indigenous Africans. Throughout the years of extremist Arab Islamic rule, the true Sudanese identity was brutally suppressed, and Arab identity was raised in its place. The injustice imposed on Sudan’s population resulted from this racial inferiority doctrine.
Grounded in the idea of Arab superiority, the Arabized groups seized power and refused to permit the participation by the rest of Sudanese society in the decision-making process. These Arabized political parties with racially superior Islamic doctrine militate against formation of a just Sudanese state. Aggravating the situation, the Arab League, Gulf Emirates, Kingdoms, Egypt, and Arab States formed a solid wall behind this racially oriented group supporting it financially and politically. These sectarian Islamist-ruling governments-imposed Arabization and Islamization on Sudan that ultimately resulted in ethnic cleansing, genocide and war crimes against the indigenous African people that continue to this day.
The policies of Arabization and Islamization, the Arab political elites attempted to impose in the country of multiple African ethnic groups with various linguistic, religion and cultural backgrounds have miserably failed. The policies have collapsed as they were made to impose Arab supremacy characterized by hate, discrimination, antagonism, inequality and bigotry against indigenous populations. They failed because indigenous people continually resisted these foreign unjust policies. Therefore, the post-independence Sudan lived in a constant state of civil wars, political uprisings, demonstrations as well as civil disturbances.
The current Sudan’s politics are inchoate as the country is riven by resistance movements of various kinds and political parties engaged in internal conflicts. These battles are fought between groups espousing Islamism, Communism, Federalism, Secularism, Regionalism, and armed movements with hidden agendas of tribalism that each seeks to control state authority for his tribe or ethnic group. The reality is that none of these ideologies and groups can resolve Sudan’s perpetual crisis because they have not addressed the root cause of the country’s problems. The causes of the Sudan’s problems rests on the Islamic-Arab state that was created at the independence with discriminatory policies towards indigenous population.
Sudan United Movement Strategic Plan
“Authoritarianism is the amalgamation of cruelty, brutality, corruption, instability, poverty,” as well as suffering imposed under the rule of an oligarchic, despotic, neo-patrimonial regime. Since the time immemorial Sudanese have been living miserable lives under the rule of such dictators. Therefore, it is time for the Sudanese people to close ranks and concentrate efforts for the removal of the despotic Arab Islamist system and establish a government of their choice; in which people select their representative in a fair and transparent democratic election.
Peace in Sudan cannot be achieved without addressing the root causes of the problem. The root cause of Sudan’s crisis is the existing Arab-Islamic governing system that held Sudanese society hostage by trying to impose and implement Arab-Islamic policies that do not reflect the aspirations of the Sudanese society. For the sake of resolving Sudan’s problems there is a need to dismantle the Islamist Deep State and establish a modern system of governance to prepare people for democratic election. Elect a government that guarantees the rights of the country’s various ethnic, religious, and cultural groups. Furthermore, there is a priority need to put an end to genocidal wars, ethnic cleansing, and human right abuses through development and conclusion of a responsible peace agreement. One that would end Sudan’s crisis through eradication of social injustice and in its stead achieve for indigenous Africans equality.
That would facilitate equitable economic development, fair distribution of state resources, eradicate discrimination against indigenous Africans. The culmination of that process would come in the form of a liberal democracy where the majority rule prevails while protecting the rights of minorities. One that would replace the current regime in Khartoum where the minority rule violates the rights of the majority. The Sudan political crisis would end only if the Arab-Islamic extremist groups were forced to abdicate their grip on power. That would require that a democratically elected government grounded in a lawful constitution would establish an equal, genuine government sharing power with the rest of Sudanese indigenous societies.
The Sudan United Movement (SUM) is committed to help Sudanese establish a civilian-led transitional government and make Sudan a safer and better place to live. Such demands could not be realized without achieving victory in a war of liberation. That achievement of victory is the ultimate objective ending the ongoing genocide and preserve peace. SUM is obligated to defend freedom, liberty and justice because we consider them as fundamental rights for all humanity. These non-negotiable rights and respect of dignity are well protected in democratic systems of governments around the globe. Therefore, it is our duty to defend our people and their rights. SUM struggles to promote democracy and human rights in Sudan not only in words but in deeds and practice. We call for freedom, justice and defense against human rights violations and exerting efforts to advance these ideas.
The December 2018 revolution toppled the tyranny of President Bashir, but his regime remained in control of the state. His militias seized power and continuous committing atrocities, ethnic cleansing, genocide and human right abuses. Despite these heinous intolerable crimes, the international community has done very little to put an end to the ongoing genocide in Darfur, Blue Nile and Nuba Mountains. Therefore, we are determined to fight for our freedom, our values in the interests of our people, since we believe the aspirations for freedom lives in each person’s soul and human dignity transcends across all people.
We will lead our people on the road to freedom, justice and hope because they represent the values and the future interest of our people. Defending these values, we must carry the fight to the despotic oligarchies of Khartoum who have hijacked the government since independence, stolen the December 2018 revolution, and robbed the country’s wealth. The strength and success of SUM depends on our commitment and dedication to the freedom for Darfur and Sudan staying on course and respecting our fundamental values and conventions. We accept that all people, men, women are created equal, and they have the right to enjoy basic human rights including life, liberty, freedom of speech, freedom of conscience and participation in political life. We hold this truth that each human being has the right of life, therefore, deserve to live in a just and lawful society that defends individual rights and respects the rule of law.
Background of Sudan United Movement
The Sudan United Movement (SUM) was established on October 10, 2010. The goal was and still is to foster regime change to a democratic constitutional form of government that respects the rights of all Sudanese people. A democratic system of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and exercised by them directly or indirectly through a system of representation involving periodic free elections. A democratic government in which the majority rules while protecting and respects the rights of minorities. The people in a free, fair and transparent election will elect the President and Parliament of the country. Which contrasts with the current totalitarian government in Sudan where the islamist minority dominates disrespecting the rights of the majority indigenous people.
The chairman of SUM is a native Darfurian and former senior officer who formed and commanded the Chad Pan Sahel Initiative Combating Terrorism Unit that liaise with US Africa Command in operations. SUM Chairman is a Graduate of the US Army Intelligence Center and Schools, Fort Huachuca, US Army War College and the College of International Security Affairs, National Defense University, Washington DC.
What is the Sudan United Movement’s Vision?
The (SUM) vision is to mobilize the Sudanese to disarm the RSF/J militias, make possible regime change. The objective of regime change is to end perpetual genocide and dismantle the Arab-Islamic State created at Sudan’s independence six decades ago to serve one group from 600 Sudanese tribes. Dissolve the Security Apparatus, and reform Sudanese security forces including the army and other state institutions. To achieve these objectives, SUM would use all means available at our disposal including negotiations to settle Sudan’s crisis peacefully and sign an agreement to establish a civilian-transitional government representing all people to prepare the country for a democratic transparent elections.
The movement focuses on both military and political means to find lasting solutions to the crisis in Sudan. The movement should also mobilize our people including internally displaced persons, refugees, and all Sudanese to join the struggle in order to defeat the enemy and make regime change. Our politicians and senior military leaders should focus on formulating strategic plans and policies to defeat the regime. The core of the proposed Sudan United Movement strategy is to mobilize the people of Sudan to pursue armed resistance to replace this vicious system of governance as it constitutes a real threat to democracy, the rule of law and violates human rights. The movement’s strategy can be expressed in the terms of ends, ways, and means.
The Sudan United Movement to be prepared to struggle to make possible regime change in Sudan. The objectives are:
- Dismantle RSF/J militias and establish a civilian-led transitional government to prepare the country for fair and transparent democratic elections.
- Defend the vulnerable population from government security forces and RSF/J militia attacks, particularly in major conflict regions.
- Terminate the perpetual genocide, ethnic cleansing and human right abuses.
- Expel new settlers from Darfur and restore the IDPs and refugees to their villages.
- Use both military and political means to achieve our strategic objectives.
- Structure a joint politico-military command to lead the movement.
- Mobilize people to provide the movement with popular, political and material support.
- Create of a well-funded, trained and equipped citizen army from an alliance of resistance movements in the current conflict zones to conduct successful operations against the Islamist Movement.
Success will depend upon our unity, cooperation among members of the Sudan United Movement, our military and political leaders as well as unification with the Sudan resistance movements, independent politicians, experts in various fields and other civil groups. We must organize the movement and assign competent leaders in key positions that bring well-grounded ideas and plans to guide the movement toward achieving its goals. Engage with regional and international communities to obtain training for military and political leadership cadres and development of foundational documents guaranteeing freedom of citizens under the rule of law.
A key objective in making possible regime change is mobilization of all indigenous Sudanese in the resistance campaign to disarm the RSF/J and its armed affiliated tribal militias. Offices of the movement would be established by cadres around the country to recruit and mobilize people for the movement. That would require achievement of the following:
- Dismantle and remove all Islamic extremist Jihadists militants and terrorists groups from Sudan.
- Dissolve the Arab-Islamic extremist system of governance and establish a civilian-led transitional authority to prepare the country for fair and transparent democratic elections.
- Formulate policies and plans to terminate once and for all Sudan’s perpetual genocide, wars of extermination, ethnic cleansing, and form a government representing all the Sudanese with their various regional and cultural backgrounds.
- Dismantle the Security Apparatus
- Reform Sudan’s security forces including the army
- Reform all government institutions
Strategic Communication and Public Diplomacy
Public diplomacy and strategic communication representatives would highlight our commitment to freedom, human rights, dignity, and equality among all human beings. We created a public diplomacy and strategic communication system to connect the movement with the general public, key influencer individuals and certain groups of audiences. Reaching out to these specific groups and individuals, particularly those with stature, knowledge, expertise and leadership qualities that their opinions can influence large segments of people. Such knowledgeable individuals can play vital roles in domestic and foreign societies, as well as their governments in advancing our cause. We need to direct our public diplomacy as well as strategic communication plans through media platforms to target certain audiences from key influencers such as political parties, religious leaders, tribal sheikhs, educators, activities, business, military personnel, women leaders, as well as youth. Our public diplomacy representatives should engage these public influencers and empower them to direct their assets to disclose and oppose the Junta regime’s violent policies calling for continuous resistance to paralyze the regime and eventually bring it down. Public diplomacy and communication would also mobilize people to rally political support for the Sudan United Movement.
It is vital for strategic communication and public diplomacy to recognize the demography of Sudan’s various societies focusing on those groups that are most exposed to the regime’s security forces and RSF/J militias. Our strategic goal is to reach out to young people, train and guide them to the path of struggle because they represent the future leaders of our nation. Women represent an important sector of the population that needs to be engaged and empowered. They can play a vital role in the struggle for social change.
Use Media Platforms to Reach out to domestic and international, audiences
Since most people obtain their news and information from television channels and other media broadcasting systems; SUM can broaden its presence through the use of these media platforms. Further, we can use the internet, blogs, YouTube, videos, websites, and hold Zoom webinars, Satellite networks such as Starlink enable us to reach out to domestic and foreign audiences. Our members with foreign language capabilities should be identified, assigned positions abroad and encouraged to make public appearances in the international media describing the ongoing crisis in Sudan. They can present information on why the regime has failed and how the SUM movement proposes to correct the situation and present plans to resolve the crisis thereby exposing the regime’s disinformation campaign to the Sudan public and international community. Our representatives abroad would use social media platforms to present current situational awareness and articulate the goals of our struggle to the regional and international community to advance our cause.
Establish Functioning Civilian-led Transitional Government
Formation of a functional transitional government system to run the state. That would require completion of the following:
- Transition to a parliamentary body constituted from different regions of the country to represent all of Sudan’s people.
- Creation of an independent judiciary system to redress the past injustice and assist on handing over individuals committed genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity to the International Criminal Court for persecution.
- Form a well-organized disciplined security force to protect vulnerable populations especially in war affected regions.
- Removal of the foreign Arab tribal settlers from Darfur.
- Provision of physical security for the indigenous refugees and internally displaced persons to return to their villages.
- Purging of the corrupt existing government institutions and removal of unqualified inexperienced disloyal tribally oriented officials replacing them with loyal and knowledgeable qualified men and women to serve the country.
- Adoption by a democratically elected parliament of a new written constitution to replace the existing nefarious laws that provides for guaranteed freedom of speech, religion, a free and unfettered press and an impartial judiciary functioning under the rule of law.
- Establishment of electoral institutions and conduct of a census to prepare the government to conduct a fair and transparent parliamentary and presidential elections.
- Facilitate the formation of new national political parties representing all Sudanese.
- Development and engagement of independent politicians from among knowledgeable men, women, traditional leaders, activists, students, businessmen and entrepreneurs to assist the transitional government to succeed.
- Conduct of Fair Transparent Democratic elections under regional and international supervision
Unification of Armed Resistance Movements
Uniting Sudan resistance movements is one of the key factors for our success. Prior to beginning the process of unification, we must answer these questions: what caused the movement to split and how do we find solutions? The primary factors causes the movement to split are:
- Lack of competent leadership to formulate policy, plans, make strategic analysis, administer, organize a revolutionary movement, direct, conduct training, provide guidance to struggle and defeat the regime.
- Ethnicity, tribalism, disloyal to the cause, nepotism, greed for power, hangry for wealth, vindictiveness, egocentrism.
- Lack of logistics and material supplies.
- Regime infiltration and deceive those with weak conscience, luring them with money and positions in the government, tribal as well as deception through religion.
- Signing of false peace deals that the regime does not honor.
We cannot make unification without addressing the issues aforementioned. Ethnicity and tribalism are part of our culture that exist among all Sudanese societies, and no one can deny it. This is part of our cultural heritage, and everyone must respect it; but we should isolate cultural elements from politics. We must leave our personal beliefs outside because the movement is working for all. Resistance fighters should put behind their differences, unite our efforts and fight this regime that continually destroys our people.
Lt. Gen. Abakar M. Abdallah is chairman of the Sudan United Movement (SUM). He is a native of Kutum, North Darfur, who served as a senior intelligence officer, and a Pan Sahel Counterterrorism unit commander in the Republic of Chad Army. He is a graduate of the US Army Intelligence and Security School and the US Army War College, and co-author of Genocide in Sudan: Caliphate Threatens Africa and the World.
Jerry Gordon is a senior editor at New English Review and co-author of Genocide in Sudan: Caliphate Threatens Africa and the World.
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